March 28, 2012

Population Structure and Inbreeding From Pedigree Analysis of Purebred Dogs

Norwegian Masters IPO1-2-3

Hypothyroidism in Dogs

Dr Foster & Smith

Thyroid glands
Hypothyroidism is a common disease in dogs, but rarely occurs in cats. The thyroid gland has a number of different functions, but it is most well known for its role in regulating metabolism by producing thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism is the condition that occurs when not enough thyroid hormones are produced. Hypothyroidism causes a wide variety of symptoms, but is often suspected in dogs that have trouble with weight gain or obesity and suffer from hair loss and skin problems. Hypothyroidism is easy to diagnose with a blood test that checks the level of various thyroid hormones including T4. Most hypothyroid dogs respond readily to treatment with synthetic thyroid medication such as Soloxine. Many dogs suffer from a low thyroid hormone level for years without treatment. If your dog has chronic recurrent skin problems, or unexplained weight gain, she may be suffering from hypothyroidism.

What causes hypothyroidism?
The thyroid gland is a small gland that is situated close to the larynx (voice box) in the neck. It is regulated by the small pituitary gland that is located at the base of the brain. Normally, the pituitary gland produces a hormone called TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone). This hormone tells the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone. The amount of TSH produced is dependent on the amount of thyroid hormone in the blood. The pituitary gland responds to the blood level of thyroid hormone by producing more TSH if the thyroid hormone level is low, and less TSH if the thyroid hormone level is high.
Hypothyroidism results from the impaired production and secretion of thyroid hormones. More than 95% of all cases occur as a result of destruction of the thyroid gland. Most hypothyroidism is due to thyroid gland destruction that is suspected to be caused by the dog's own immune system killing the cells of the thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism may also be a result of atrophy of the thyroid tissue and resultant infiltration of the tissue by fat, or by a cancer. Hypothyroidism can also be associated with the presence of other diseases and the use of certain medications. Rare cases of congenital hypothyroidism have been diagnosed, as well.

Who gets hypothyroidism?
Although the onset of clinical signs is variable, hypothyroidism most commonly develops in middle-aged dogs between the ages of 4 to 10 years. The disorder usually affects mid to large size breeds of dogs, and is rare in toy and miniature breeds of dogs. Breeds that appear to be predisposed to developing the condition include the Golden Retriever, Doberman Pinscher, Irish Setter, Miniature Schnauzer, Dachshund, Cocker Spaniel, and Airedale Terrier. German Shepherds and mixed breeds appear to be at a reduced risk of contracting the disease. There does not appear to be a sex predilection but spayed females appear to develop it more often than intact females.

What are the symptoms?
Thyroid hormones are needed for normal cellular metabolic function. A deficiency of thyroid hormones affects the metabolic function of all organ systems. As a result, the symptoms are usually variable and non-specific. There is not a specific symptom that is diagnostic for hypothyroidism. There are, however, several symptoms that when combined together make the veterinarian more suspicious of the likelihood of the animal having the disease. A study on hypothyroid dogs revealed the following information on the variety and frequency of symptoms seen with the disease:

Clinical SymptomsPercentage of Dogs Showing Symptoms
Lethargy/mental dullness70
Hair loss65
Weight gain/obesity60
Dry hair coat/excessive shedding60
Hyperpigmentation of the skin25
Cold intolerance15
Slow heart rate10
High blood cholesterol80

How is hypothyroidism diagnosed?

There are several different tests used to diagnose hypothyroidism in the dog. The test chosen will depend on the symptoms and the availability of different tests to your veterinarian.
Baseline T4 Test: The most common test run is the baseline T4 test. A blood sample is drawn and tested by radioimmunoassay to determine the level of T4 thyroid hormone in the bloodstream. The T4 hormone is produced only in the thyroid gland and dogs with a failure of the thyroid gland will have a lowered level of this hormone. However, there are other conditions that can cause a lowering of T4 so if this screening test is positive for hypothyroidism another more specific test is often done to confirm the diagnosis.
Free T4 by Equilibrium Dialysis: T4 is present in two forms in the body. The "bound" form is attached to proteins in the blood and is unable to enter the cells. The "free" T4 is not attached to proteins, and can readily enter the cells and perform its function. The free T4 is normally present in very small amounts. A special laboratory test - equilibrium dialysis - has been designed that can quite precisely measure free T4.
TSH Level: This blood test measures the amount of TSH in the bloodstream. In a hypothyroid dog, the level will be elevated because the body is trying to stimulate the thyroid gland to produce more thyroid hormone. If the Baseline T4 and Free T4 by Equilibrium Dialysis are low and the TSH is elevated, a diagnosis of hypothyroidism can be made.
TSH Response Test: If a dog has a low T4 level, this test may be performed to confirm a diagnosis of hypothyroidism. A small amount of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is injected into the vein. After 6 hours, a blood sample is drawn and the T4 level is checked. A dog without thyroid disease that may have other conditions causing a low T4 will have a high T4 level after the TSH injection. A dog with true hypothyroidism will not have an increase in T4 after the injection.

How is hypothyroidism treated?
A hypothyroid dog will need to be on thyroxine for
the rest of his life.
Hypothyroidism in dogs is easily treated. Treatment consists of placing the dog on a daily dose of a synthetic thyroid hormone called thyroxine (levothyroxine). There are numerous brand names of this drug. The dose and frequency of administration of this drug varies depending on the severity of the disease and the individual response of the animal to the drug. A dog is usually placed on a standard dose for his weight and then blood samples are drawn periodically to check his response and then the dose is adjusted accordingly. Once therapy is started, the dog will need to be on treatment for the rest of his life. Usually after the treatment is started, the majority of the symptoms resolve.

March 27, 2012

Sélection Coupe de France 17 et 18 Mars 2012 organisée par la Ste Canine de FRANCHE - COMTE

CUN-CBG Groupe Travail Pistage

Sélection Coupe de France 17 et 18 Mars 2012 

organisée par la Ste Canine de FRANCHE - COMTE

Canine Autonomic Nervous System


Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog


NVBH Dutch Specialty 2012


Local:  Zolle Canine Center


Groenendael Males: Mme. Laura Vassallo (IT)
Groenendael Females: Mme. Vermeire (BE)
Tervueren Males : Mme. P. Stern-Hanf
Tervueren Females : Mr. Pietro Bottagisio (IT)
Laekenois & Malinois : Mme W. Roem


March 26, 2012

Locomotion of Canis lupus familiaris: Dog



                                                              Les Sélectifs RING 2012 


March 25, 2012



Tal y como os comentábamos hace unos días, la Asociación Nacional de Profesionales del Adiestramiento Canino, en co-organización con el Boxer Club de España, va a realizar el día 31 de Marzo del 2012, una ponencia monográfica sobre la actuación de los Figurantes de pruebas IPO. Esta ponencia se imparte con el fin de aportar formación e información a aquellas personas que decidan presentarse al examen del día1 de Abril del 2012, que tendrá lugar en el Campo de Trabajo de la Escuela de Adiestramiento Juper, así como para las personas que consideren interesante ampliar sus conocimientos en este campo.
El examinador será Javier Moreno, juez internacional IPO.
El examen se realiza con el fin de elegir a los mejores figurantes para el Campeonato del Boxer Club de España, que tendrá lugar los días 28 y 29 de Abril del 2012, según la normativa interna del Club.
Considerando que este nuevo evento puede ser de vuestro interés, ya que las ponencias versarán sobre aspectos técnicos dentro de un área poco habitual en los adiestradores profesionales.
                    Lugar: Escuela de Adiestramiento Juper.
                                  Carretera M-300 Km. 4,500
                    Tel.: 91279 29 08
                    Fecha: 31 de Marzo de 2012
                    Tema: Figurantes de pruebas IPO
                    Ponente: Juan José Pérez
                    Precio: 25€ para los socios de ANPAC
El impreso de suscripción lo podréis encontrar

Juan José Pérez López

Plaza de la Alegría 6, 1º A
28500 - Arganda del Rey
Tel. 912792908 -
Sábado, Marzo 31, 2012 - 09:00

Hungarian Belgian Shepherd Dog Club

 Klubkiállítás 2012.04.14 / HBJK Club Show 14.04.2012

Marie-France Varlet  (F) - groenendael, laekenois, malinois, tervueren
Harsányi Péter (HU) - schipperke

The Origin of the Dog Revisited




Clasificatoria FMBB y SMCU/FCI 2012 en Vitoria-Gasteiz

March 24, 2012

Animal Locomotion


Canine Head


27º Troféu Mondioring da Caneutile

27º Troféu Mondioring da CaneUtile
Data: 14 e 15 de ABRIL 2012
Director de Prova: Ana Casquilho
Comissário de prova: Maria David
HA: Nuno Gil (Pré-Mondio) António Henriques (Mr2 e 3), Edmundo Franco (Mr3) Manuel Ramirez (Mr2 e 3) Alberto Pinto (Mr2 e 3)
Tema: A Floresta
Local: Azeição - Vila Nogueira de Azeitão - Setubal


SABADO 11 - 14h Testes Sociabiliade
15h PréMondioring
16h Mondioring 1
17h entrega dos premios Pré e Mondioring 1

DOMINGO 12 - 09h Mondioring 3
14h Mondioring 2
17h entrega dos premios Mondioring 2 e 3

Ps: Os horários podem vir a ser alterados em virtude do numero de concorrentes inscritos, para o bom desenrolar da prova.

Prova Pontuável para o Campeonato do CPCPB

March 23, 2012

Le 134ème Championnat de France de conformité au standard se déroulera du 6 au 8 juillet 2012 à Metz.

Juges :
Males toutes variétés Mme Amandan Mc Laren
Femelles toutes variétés Mme Marie France Varlet

Dog Locomotion


Clasificatoria FMBB y SMCU/FCI 2012 en Zafra (Badajoz)

                                               24/25 de Marzo de 2012
Vicente Fernández

          Juan  Miguel Tadeo       David Vargas       Jose Antonio Fernández

Cómo llegar:
Recinto ferial de Zafra, campo de la hípica, Avda. de caja Badajoz.

Canine Genomics and Genetics: Running with the Pack

March 22, 2012

BHCN DAY 4 Young & OLd

2ª Exposição Canina Nacional do Montijo - Portugal

What are Cataracts?

                         cataracts.jpg (14265 bytes)

A cataract is any opacity or loss of transparency of the lens of the eye. The opacity may be confined to a small area of the lens or capsule, or it may affect the whole structure. A complete cataract affecting both eyes will result in blindness, whereas small non-progressive cataracts will not interfere with vision. Primary cataracts occur in some breeds; in other breeds the cataract may develop secondarily to another inherited disorder such as progressive retinal atrophy or glaucoma.
Most cataracts are inherited. Non-hereditary cataracts also occur, as a result of other diseases, trauma, toxicity, or metabolic disturbances.

The genetics have not yet been defined for most affected breeds. In others, the mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive,autosomal dominant, or with incomplete dominance.

As you can see from the following list, inherited cataracts have been identified in many breeds. In general, the age of onset, the ophthalmoscopic abnormalities seen, the rate of progression, and the degree of symmetry are specific to each breed. Congenital cataracts are those that are present when the eyes open or before 8 weeks of age; juvenile or developmental cataracts occur in young animals up to about 4 years of age; and later onset cataracts develop in mature animals.
Afghan hound (early developing cataracts progressing to visual impairment by 2 - 3 years of age), akita (cataracts associated with microphthalmia), Alaskan malamute (juvenile), American cocker spaniel (juvenile), Australian cattle dog (blue heeler), Australian shepherd (congenital, juvenile, adult), Basenji (congenital),beagle (congenital), bearded collie (juvenile, adult), Bedlington terrier (juvenile), Belgian sheepdog (cataracts non-progressive, do not cause visual impairment),Belgian tervuren (non-progressive, do not cause visual impairment), Bichon frise (juvenile), border  collie (adult), Boston terrier (early onset cataracts, bilateral, progress to complete cataract and blindness by 2 - 3 years of age, and later onset cataracts, only occasionally interfere with vision, seen before 8 years of age), Bouvier des Flandres (congenital, juvenile, adult), Brussels griffon (adult), Cavalier King Charles spaniel (early onset  cataracts appear by 6 months, progress to complete cataract and blindness by 2 years), Chesapeake Bay retriever (cataracts seen as young adult, may progress to impair vision), chow chow  (congenital cataracts),Clumber spanielcollie (rough and smooth - congenital), curly-coated retriever (cataracts develop as adults and progress slowly), dachshund , dalmatian ,Doberman pinscher (cataracts develop before 2 years of age and may cause significant vision loss), English cocker spaniel (juvenile), English springer spaniel(congenital, juvenile, adult), German shepherd (congenital or early developing cataracts that are non-progressive after 1 or 2 years of age), German short-haired pointer (juvenile), Golden retriever (cataracts develop at varying ages, and at different lens locations, usually without visual impairment), Gordon setter (juvenile or adult), Great Dane (juvenile), HavaneseIrish setter (juvenile), Irish wolfhound (juvenile, adult), Italian greyhound (juvenile), Jack Russell terrier, Japanese chin,Labrador retriever (mostly see stationary or very slowly progressive cataracts by 1 to 3 years of age, that do not interfere with vision), Lhasa apso (adult), Lowchen,Mastiffminiature schnauzer (congenital, juvenile, adult, also cataracts in association with microphthalmos), NewfoundlandNorbottenspetsNorwegian elkhound(juvenile), Nova Scotia duck tolling retrieverOld English sheepdog (congenital, juvenile, adult), Papillon (juvenile, adult), PekingesePembroke Welsh corgi(congenital, juvenile), Portuguese water dogrottweiler (juvenile, adult), Saint Bernard (juvenile), samoyed (congenital, juvenile, adult), Scottish terrier (adult), Shar PeiShetland sheepdogShih tzuSiberian husky (juvenile), smooth fox terriersoft-coated Wheaten terrierStaffordshire bull terrier (early onset  cataracts are seen by 12 months and progress to blindness by 3 years of age), standard poodle (cataracts are bilateral, symmetrical, and progressive to blindness by about 2 years of age), standard schnauzer (juvenile), Tibetan spanielTibetan terrier (juvenile), Welsh springer spaniel (cataracts develop as early as 8 to 12 weeks of age and progress rapidly, impairing vision), West Highland White terrier (congenital, juvenile), whippet (adult), wire-haired fox terrier (juvenile), Yorkshire terrier (juvenile)
For many breeds and many disorders, the studies to determine the mode of inheritance or the frequency in the breed have not been carried out, or are inconclusive. We have listed breeds for which there is a consensus among those investigating in this field and among veterinary practitioners, that the condition is significant in this breed.

This depends on whether the cataracts are localized to a small area or are more general, and whether they affect one or both eyes. A small cataract in one eye will not affect your dog's vision at all. At the other end of the spectrum, cataracts may progress rapidly or slowly to cause complete blindness.
Congenital cataracts or those that develop at a young age may mature and be reabsorbed, resulting in improved vision. This is unpredictable. In the process of resorption, liquefied lens material may leak into the eye causing inflammation and possibly glaucoma.
With their acute senses of smell and hearing, dogs can compensate very well for visual difficulties, particularly in familiar surroundings. In fact owners may be unaware of the extent of vision loss. You can help your visually impaired dog by developing regular routes for exercise, maintaining your dog's surroundings as constant as possible, introducing any necessary changes gradually, and being patient with your dog.

You may suspect your dog is having visual difficulties and/or you may notice discoloration of your dog's pupil(s). Your veterinarian will be able to see the cataract with an ophthalmoscope. Even when not causing visual problems, cataracts may be discovered on a routine ophthalmoscopic exam.

Cataracts can be removed surgically. The decision whether to do so is based on several factors, such as whether the cataracts are progressive, the degree of visual impairment, and the dog's temperament. To prevent postoperative problems, the dog must be cooperative and quiet, especially in the first week following surgery.

It is prudent to assume cataracts are inherited unless another specific cause can be identified. Since some cataracts cause no clinical signs, it is worthwhile to screen dogs of affected breeds annually that are used in breeding programmes. Where cataracts are identified, affected animals, their parents and littermates should not be used for breeding.
The fact that the age of onset is fairly specific for different breeds is helpful in making decisions about breeding programmes.

American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists. 1996. Ocular Disorders Presumed to be Inherited in Purebred Dogs. Purdue University, W. Lafayette, Indiana.


15 de Dezembro - 2012 - Póvoa de Varzim